Jews, Church, & Civilization III

INTRODUCTION

The Jewish revolt came to the aid of the Persian Sassanid invaders of the Byzantine Empire, Judea in particular. Jerusalem fell to the combined Persian–Jewish forces after a 20–day siege. The Persians gave the Jews authority to control the city, and they effectively
controlled it for five years. However, at that point, Jerusalem swung back into Christian control c. 626 CE. Betrayals and massacres ensued, resulting in a huge Jewish exodus to Egypt.

632 CE: FORCED CONVERSIONS

Forced conversions of Byzantine Jews ordered by Emperor Heraclius after the Jews of Judea had allied with the Persian invaders, particularly in Jerusalem c. 614 CE.

634–642 CE: ISLAMIC EXPANSION

Palestine, Syria and Egypt—where the majority of Jews live—come under Arab domination.

636 CE: ARAB RULE OVER JUDEA COMMENCES

463 year Arab rule: 636–1099 CE.

661–680 CE: MU’AWIYA

The Caliph Mu’awiya, the first Umayyad caliph, transforms the Arab world into a secular state in which religion takes second place. For the first time leadership is in the hands of a person who was not one of the Prophet’s associates. Mu’awiya settles Jews, whom he considers to be faithful allies of the Arabs, in Tripoli and Syria; a period of prosperity for the Jews and Christians in Palestine under a regime which is very tolerant.


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