Jews, Church, & Civilization IV

INTRODUCTION

1541 CE: CALVIN v. PIGHIUS

Calvin writes a treatise on free will against the Roman Catholic theologian Albert Pighius.

1541 CE: HERNANDO DE SOTO “DISCOVERS” THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

–for Spain

De Soto will die shortly thereafter on the west bank of the river, in the American Indian village of Guachoya (near present–day McArthur, Arkansas) the following year on May 21, 1542.

1542 CE: ROMAN INQUISITION

–established by Pope Paul III

The Congregation of the Holy office – also known as the Roman Inquisition – was established, originally to counter Protestantism.

In 1555, when Cardinal Caraffa became Pope Paul IV, he immediately extended its operation, advocating the tracking down of all “suspects,” especially suspect conversos (Jews who had converted to Christianity, but still practiced Judaism).

Until this date, many (‘returning’) conversos had found refuge in the Papal States and were able to return to Judaism unmolested.

After this, the Inquisition operated across the Papal States – Venice, Milan, Naples, Mantua, and Tuscany.

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